Medicine 2.0

Official proceedings publication of the Medicine 2.0 Congress


"Medicine 2.0" (ISSN 1923-2195, Medline Abbreviation: Med 2 0) is the official proceedings publication of the Medicine 2.0 Congress (World Congress on Social Media in Health, Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research), and other events, workshops and tutorials promoted under the Medicine 2.0 label.

Since July 2014, all Medicine 2.0 papers are now in PubMed Central and indexed in PubMed.

Conference organizers interested in promoting a new conference or their existing workshop/tutorial/event series under the Medicine 2.0 label and making it eligible for publication in a Pubmed indexed Proceedings volume, please contact us.

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Journal Description

"Medicine 2.0" (ISSN 1923-2195, Medline Abbreviation: Med 2 0) is the official proceedings publication of the Medicine 2.0 Congress (World Congress on Social Media in Health, Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research), and other events, workshops and tutorials promoted under the Medicine 2.0 label.

We currently only accept submissions from presenters at Medicine 2.0 conferences and workshops promoted at (event organizers interested in promoting their workshop/tutorial/event under the Medicine 2.0 label and making it eligible for publication in a Pubmed indexed Proceedings volume, please contact us).

Presenters at Medicine 2.0 events are eligible to submit short proceedings papers. For details see Online Submissions instructions.

Full-text articles are XML tagged using the NLM-DTD, archived in PubMed Central and indexed in PubMed.

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Recent Articles:

  • TOC/Feature image for homepage.

    Acceptance Factors of Mobile Apps for Diabetes by Patients Aged 50 or Older: A Qualitative Study


    Background: Mobile apps for people with diabetes offer great potential to support therapy management, increase therapy adherence, and reduce the probability of the occurrence of accompanying and secondary diseases. However, they are rarely used by elderly patients due to a lack of acceptance. Objective: We investigated the question “Which factors influence the acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older?” Particular emphasis was placed on the current use of mobile devices/apps, acceptance-promoting/-inhibiting factors, features of a helpful diabetes app, and contact persons for technical questions. This qualitative study was the third of three substudies investigating factors influencing acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older. Methods: Guided interviews were chosen in order to get a comprehensive insight into the subjective perspective of elderly diabetes patients. At the end of each interview, the patients tested two existing diabetes apps to reveal obstacles in (first) use. Results: Altogether, 32 patients with diabetes were interviewed. The mean age was 68.8 years (SD 8.2). Of 32 participants, 15 (47%) knew apps, however only 2 (6%) had already used a diabetes app within their therapy. The reasons reported for being against the use of apps were a lack of additional benefits (4/8, 50%) compared to current therapy management, a lack of interoperability with other devices/apps (1/8, 12%), and no joy of use (1/8, 12%). The app test revealed the following main difficulties in use: nonintuitive understanding of the functionality of the apps (26/29, 90%), nonintuitive understanding of the menu navigation/labeling (19/29, 66%), font sizes and representations that were too small (14/29, 48%), and difficulties in recognizing and pressing touch-sensitive areas (14/29, 48%). Furthermore, the patients felt the apps lacked individually important functions (11/29, 38%), or felt the functions that were offered were unnecessary for their own therapy needs (10/29, 34%). The most important contents of a helpful diabetes app were reported as the ability to add remarks to measured values (9/28, 32%), the definition of thresholds for blood glucose values and highlighting deviating values (7/28, 25%), and a reminder feature for measurement/medication (7/28, 25%). The most important contact persons for technical questions were family members (19/31, 61%). Conclusions: A lack of additional benefits and ease of use emerged as the key factors for the acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older. Furthermore, it has been shown that the needs of the investigated target group are highly heterogeneous due to varying previous knowledge, age, type of diabetes, and therapy. Therefore, a helpful diabetes app should be individually adaptable. Personal contact persons, especially during the initial phase of use, are of utmost importance to reduce the fear of data loss or erroneous data input, and to raise acceptance among this target group.

  • Screenshot of reviewer stage website app selection.

    The Diabetes App Challenge: User-Led Development and Piloting of Internet Applications Enabling Young People With Diabetes to Set the Focus for Their...


    Background: Traditionally, some teenagers and young adults with diabetes have not engaged well at diabetes appointments, giving rise to concerns about long-term health risks. We considered that apps might help this group of patients to improve preparation for, and therefore engagement at their appointments. Although there are already many apps for young people with type 1 diabetes (YPD), we thought that by supporting YPD themselves to develop apps, the resulting products would have greater “authenticity” and relevance. Objective: To test the feasibility of an online competition to (1) recruit and support YPD to develop apps (mobile or Internet based) to help prepare for clinic appointments, and (2) for these apps to be tested and rated by YPD. Methods: The “Diabetes App Challenge” was a United Kingdom (UK) national competition, run between June and October 2012 for teams including at least one YPD (aged 16-25) to pilot the design and development of apps for use by other YPD prior to clinic appointments. The competition was advertised by social media, email, AdWords and postings on the Diabetes UK website. Registrants for the competition were supported via email and discussion forum. After app development, other YPD were invited (November 2012-February 2013) to trial the apps, choose and use one prior to a clinic appointment, and review their experiences. Results: Of 56 people (including 28 YPD) who expressed interest in the competition, 6 teams (14 people) developed and submitted an app. Two apps aimed to facilitate agenda setting in clinic consultations, 2 enabled data logging and 2 helped insulin dose calculation. Of 135 YPD who registered to trial the apps, 83 (61.5%) took part (mean age 18.98, 37/83 male). Agenda setting apps were considered most useful for preparing for and setting the focus of clinic appointments (P=.02). Just over half (46/83, 55%) said they would use their chosen app again and 4/5 (67/83, 81%) would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions: This competition to engage YPD in developing and reviewing apps proved successful. App designers and testers saw a need for a range of functions. However, this may, in part, reflect a lack of detailed knowledge of all existing apps and be limited by the technical skills of YPD. App competitions appear worth applying to other patient groups, but future competitions should include a review stage and perhaps focus on ideas for app design for subsequent professional implementation.

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    Health Information on the Web and Consumers’ Perspectives on Health Professionals’ Responses to Information Exchange

    Authors List:


    Background: Health information technology, which is sometimes referred to as informaticization of medicine, is changing the extent to which patients become competent producers of their own health by enabling them access to health information anytime and anywhere. Objective: This research provides preliminary information on users' perceptions of the extent to which use of the Internet for health information impacts medical encounters. We specifically explored the following questions: (1) To what extent perceptions of positive or negative changes in medical encounters are associated with sociodemographic background of online health information seekers, and how often the Internet information is discussed with providers? (2) To what extent is there an association between perceived changes in medical encounters and frequency of referring to the Internet during medical encounters? (3) To what extent is there an association between sociodemographic background of online health information users and frequency of discussing of the Internet information with providers? Methods: The data for this study was derived from a national sampling of online health and medical information users who participated in the Study of Health and Medical Information in Cyberspace—Survey of User Perceptions (N=710). This study used a nationally representative online research panel of the US adults maintained by the Knowledge Networks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square, and t tests were performed to examine the data. Results: Although Internet sources allow people the opportunity to gather health or medical information, discussion of this information was not a very common activity. It is noteworthy that half of the sample never or rarely discussed health/medical information obtained from Internet sources with health professionals. Chi-square analyses revealed that discussion of online health information with providers were associated with education, income, and marital status. We also found that discussion of the Internet information mostly promotes better physician-patient interactions. Analyses with post-hoc tests identified that perceived changes in medical encounters were associated with age, education, and income. However, 9.1% (64/703) of our respondents strongly agreed that the interactions with their providers have been strained. T test analyses showed that marital status, race, and gender were not significant. Conclusions: Embracing new technologies, and adapting to changing roles and relationships in delivery of medical care are critical to effective delivery of patient-centered care. Health professionals could also guide patients on how to evaluate information and where to access to reliable and accurate information.

  • Computer image sourced from Microsoft’s public domain images. ( Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Employee and Family Assistance Video Counseling Program: A Post Launch Retrospective Comparison With In-Person Counseling Outcomes


    Background: Access to technologically mediated information and services under the umbrella of mental and physical health has become increasingly available to clients via Internet modalities, according to a recent study. In May 2010, video counseling was added to the counseling services offered through the Employee and Family Assistance Program at Shepell·fgi as a pilot project with a full operational launch in September 2011. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a retrospective post launch examination of the video counseling service through an analysis of the reported clinical outcomes of video and in-person counseling modalities. Methods: A chronological sample of 68 video counseling (VC) cases and 68 in-person (IP) cases were collected from a pool of client clinical files closed in 2012. To minimize the variables impacting the study and maintain as much clinical continuity as possible, the IP and the VC clients must have attended clinical sessions with any one of six counselors who provided both the VC and the IP services. The study compared the two counseling modalities along the following data points (see glossary of terms): (1) client demographic profiles (eg, age, gender, whether the sessions involved individuals or conjoint sessions with couples or families, etc), (2) presenting issue, (3) average session hours, (4) client rating of session helpfulness, (5) rates of goal completion, (6) client withdrawal rates, (7) no show and late cancellation rates, and (8) pre/post client self-assessment. Specific to VC, we examined client geographic location. Results: Data analysis demonstrates that the VC and the IP showed a similar representation of presenting issues with nearly identical outcomes for client ratings of session helpfulness, rates of goal completion, pre/post client self-assessment, average session duration, and client geographic location. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of withdrawal from counseling, no shows, and late cancellations between the VC and the IP counseling. The statistical analysis of the data was done on SPSS statistical software using 2-sample and pairwise comparison t tests at a 95% level of significance. Conclusions: Based on the study, VC and IP show similar outcomes in terms of client rating of session and goal attainment.

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    Transforming Patient Experience: Health Web Science Meets Medicine 2.0


    Until recently, the Western biomedical paradigm has been effective in delivering health care, however this model is not positioned to tackle complex societal challenges or solve the current problems facing health care and delivery. The future of medicine requires a shift to a patient-centric model and in so doing the Internet has a significant role to play. The disciplines of Health Web Science and Medicine 2.0 are pivotal to this approach. This viewpoint paper argues that these disciplines, together with the field of design, can tackle these challenges. Drawing together ideas from design practice and research, complexity theory, and participatory action research we depict design as an approach that is fundamentally social and linked to concepts of person-centered care. We discuss the role of design, specifically co-design, in understanding the social, psychological, and behavioral dimensions of illness and the implications for the design of future care towards transforming the patient experience. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed from the panel session "Transforming Patient Experience: Health Web Science Meets Web 2.0" at the 2013 Medicine 2.0 conference in London.

  • (cc) Genes et al. CC-BY-SA-2.0, please cite as (

    Analysis of Twitter Users’ Sharing of Official New York Storm Response Messages


    Background: Twitter is a social network where users read, send, and share snippets of text (“tweets”). Tweets can be disseminated through multiple means; on desktop computers, laptops, and mobile devices, over ethernet, Wi-Fi or cellular networks. This redundancy positions Twitter as a useful tool for disseminating information to the public during emergencies or disasters. Previous research on dissemination of information using Twitter has mostly investigated the characteristics of tweets that are most effective in raising consumer awareness about a new product or event. In particular, they describe characteristics that increase the chance the messages will be shared ("retweeted") by users. In comparison, little has been published on how information from municipal or state government agencies spreads on Twitter during emergency situations. Retweeting these messages is a way to enhance public awareness of potentially important instructions from public officials in a disaster. Objective: The aim of this study is to (1) describe the tweets of select New York State and New York City agencies by public officials surrounding two notable recent winter storms that required a large-scale emergency response, and (2) identify the characteristics of the tweets of public officials that were most disseminated (retweeted). Methods: For one week surrounding Superstorm Sandy (October 2012) and the winter blizzard Nemo (February 2013), we collected (1) tweets from the official accounts for six New York governmental agencies, and (2) all tweets containing the hashtags #sandy (or #nemo) and #nyc. From these data we calculated how many times a tweet was retweeted, controlling for differences in baseline activity in each account. We observed how many hashtags and links each tweet contained. We also calculated the lexical diversity of each tweet, a measure of the range of vocabulary used. Results: During the Sandy storm, 3242 shared (retweeted) messages from public officials were collected. The lexical diversity of official tweets was similar (2.25-2.49) and well below the average for non-official tweets mentioning #sandy and #nyc (3.82). Most official tweets were with substantial retweets including a link for further reading. Of the 448 tweets analyzed from six official city and state Twitter accounts from the Nemo blizzard, 271 were related to the storm, and 174 had actionable information for the public. Actionable storm messages were retweeted approximately 24x per message, compared to 31x per message for general storm information. Conclusions: During two weather emergencies, New York public officials were able to convey storm-related information that was shared widely beyond existing follower bases, potentially improving situational awareness and disaster response. Official Sandy tweets, characterized by a lower lexical diversity score than other city- and Sandy-related tweets, were likely easier to understand, and often linked to further information and resources. Actionable information in the Nemo blizzard, such as specific instructions and cancellation notices, was not shared as often as more general warnings and “fun facts,” suggesting agencies mix important instructions with more general news and trivia, as a way of reaching the broadest audience during a disaster.

  • A snapshot of LMS page for Medical Informatics course via mobile device (cropped Figure 1).

    Embedding a Learning Management System Into an Undergraduate Medical Informatics Course in Saudi Arabia: Lessons Learned


    Background: Public universities in Saudi Arabia today are making substantial investments in e-learning as part of their educational system, especially in the implementation of learning management systems (LMS). To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in Saudi Arabia exploring medical students’ experience with an LMS, particularly as part of a medical informatics course. Objective: This study investigates students’ use of various features of the LMS embedded in a recently implemented medical informatics course. Methods: A mixed methodology approach was employed. Survey questionnaires were distributed to all third year medical informatics students at the end of the course. In addition, two focus group sessions were conducted with twelve students. A thematic analysis of the focus group was performed. Results: A total of 265 third year medical student surveys (167/265, 63% male and 98/265, 37% female) were completed and analyzed. Overall, 50.6% (134/265) of the students agreed that the course was well planned and up-to-date, had clearly stated objectives and clear evaluation methods, appropriate course assignment, and that the LMS offered easy navigation. Most of the students rated the course as good/fair overall. In general, females were 10.4% more likely to prefer the LMS, as revealed by higher odd ratios (odds ratio [OR] 1.104, 95% CI 0.86-1.42) compared to males. Survey results showed that students’ use of LMS tools increased after taking the course compared to before taking the course. The full model containing all items were statistically significant (χ225=69.52, P<.001, n=243), indicating that the model was able to distinguish between students who had positive attitudes towards LMS and those who did not. The focus group, however, revealed that the students used social networking for general use rather than learning purposes, but they were using other Internet resources and mobile devices for learning. Male students showed a higher preference for using technology in general to enhance learning activities. Overall, medical student attitudes towards the LMS were generally positive. Students also wanted a reminder and notification tool to help them stay updated with course events. Interestingly, a subset of students had been running a parallel LMS of their own that has features worth exploring and could be integrated with an official LMS in the future. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first time that an LMS was used in a medical informatics course. Students showed interest in adapting various LMS tools to enhance their learning and gained more knowledge through familiarity with the tool. Researching an official LMS also revealed the existence of a parallel student-created LMS. This could allow teacher-led and student-led platforms to be integrated in the future for an enhanced student-centered experience.

  • The communication device, a prototype called ippi, connected to the TV-set.

    Participatory Design With Seniors: Design of Future Services and Iterative Refinements of Interactive eHealth Services for Old Citizens


    Background: There is an increasing social isolation among the elderly today. This will be an even larger issue in the future with growing numbers of elderly and less resources, for example, in terms of economy and staff. Loneliness and social isolation can, however, be addressed in several ways using different interactive eHealth services. Objective: This case study investigated novel eHealth services for the elderly, and their usage of a social interactive device designed especially for them. Methods: In this work, we used an innovative mobile communication device connected to the television (TV), which worked as a remotely controlled large interactive screen. The device was tested by 8 volunteers who visited a senior center. They were between 65 and 80 years of age and lived in their own homes. Throughout the 1.5 year-long project, 7 design workshops were held with the seniors and the staff at the center. During these workshops, demands and preferences regarding existing and new services were gathered. At the end of the project the participants’ experience of the device and of the services was elaborated in 3 workshops to get ideas for improved or new meaningful services. During the data analyses and development process, what seniors thought would be useful in relation to what was feasible was prioritized by the development company. Results: Regarding daily usage, the seniors reported that they mainly used the service for receiving information from the senior center and for communication with other participants in the group or with younger relatives. They also read information about events at the senior center and they liked to perform a weekly sent out workout exercise. Further, they played games such as Memory and Sudoku using the device. The service development focused on three categories of services: cognitive activities, social activities, and physical activities. A cognitive activity service that would be meaningful to develop was a game for practicing working memory. In the social activities category, the seniors wanted different quizzes and multi-player games. For physical activities, the seniors desired more workout exercises and suggestions for guided walking routes. A new category, “information and news”, was suggested since they lacked services like senior-customized global and local news. Conclusions: This study showed the importance of input from a group of seniors when designing new services for elderly citizens. Besides input to interactive eHealth service development for seniors, this study showed the importance of a social context around such work. The seniors were very engaged throughout the project and workshops were frequently visited and the seniors became friends. The high amount of input from the seniors could be explained in terms of social inclusion; they belonged to a group and each member was considered important for the work. The friendly workshop atmosphere facilitated new ideas and redesign of the services.

  • (cc) Okazaki et al. CC-BY-SA-2.0, please cite as (

    Clinicians’ Assessment of Mobile Monitoring: A Comparative Study in Japan and Spain


    Background: The gradual but steady shift toward telemedicine during the past decades is a clear response to important health problems that most industrialized countries have been facing. The growing elderly population and changing dietary habits have led to an increase in people with chronic diseases and overall health care expenditures. As more consumers use their mobile device as their preferred information and communication technology (ICT) device, mobile health monitoring has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Objective: This study examines clinicians’ perception of factors determining mobile health monitoring acceptance in Japan and Spain. The study proposes a causal model consisting of innovation seeking, new ICT attributes (perceived value, time-place flexibility, and compatibility), and usage intention. In addition, cross-country differences are posited for the hypothesized relationships among the proposed constructs. Methods: A questionnaire survey was performed to test our research model and hypotheses. The sample consisted of clinicians from various medical specialties. In total, 471 and 497 usable responses were obtained in Japan and Spain, respectively. Results: In both countries, the collected data fit the model well with all the hypothesized paths among the constructs being supported. Furthermore, the moderating effects of psychic distance were observed in most of the paths. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the importance of new ICT attributes, namely perceived value, time-place flexibility, and compatibility, in the clinicians' adoption of mobile health monitoring. In particular, our results clearly indicated that perceived medical value and ubiquitous nature of the tool are the two main benefits clinicians are likely to perceive (and appreciate) in both countries. This tendency will be stronger for those with a greater propensity to seek innovation in ICT. In terms of cross-country comparison, the strength of the path from innovation seeking to perceived value was greater in Japan than in Spain. Since the number of clinicians per 10,000 residents is substantially fewer in Japan compared with Spain, clinicians with a greater propensity to seek innovation in ICT may have perceived greater value in using mobile health monitoring to improve remote patient care.

  • The CanMEDS framework.

    eHealth Technology Competencies for Health Professionals Working in Home Care to Support Older Adults to Age in Place: Outcomes of a Two-Day Collaborative...


    Background: The demand for care is increasing, whereas in the near future the number of people working in professional care will not match with the demand for care. eHealth technology can help to meet the growing demand for care. Despite the apparent positive effects of eHealth technology, there are still barriers to technology adoption related to the absence of a composite set of knowledge and skills among health care professionals regarding the use of eHealth technology. Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the competencies required by health care professionals working in home care, with eHealth technologies such as remote telecare and ambient assisted living (AAL), mobile health, and fall detection systems. Methods: A two-day collaborative workshop was undertaken with academics across multiple disciplines with experience in working on funded research regarding the application and development of technologies to support older people. Results: The findings revealed that health care professionals working in home care require a subset of composite skills as well as technology-specific competencies to develop the necessary aptitude in eHealth care. This paper argues that eHealth care technology skills must be instilled in health care professionals to ensure that technologies become integral components of future care delivery, especially to support older adults to age in place. Educating health care professionals with the necessary skill training in eHealth care will improve service delivery and optimise the eHealth care potential to reduce costs by improving efficiency. Moreover, embedding eHealth care competencies within training and education for health care professionals ensures that the benefits of new technologies are realized by casting them in the context of the larger system of care. These care improvements will potentially support the independent living of older persons at home. Conclusions: This paper describes the health care professionals’ competencies and requirements needed for the use of eHealth technologies to support elderly adults to age in place. In addition, this paper underscores the need for further discussion of the changing role of health care professionals working in home care within the context of emerging eHealth care technologies. The findings are of value to local and central government, health care professionals, service delivery organizations, and commissioners of care to use this paper as a framework to conduct and develop competencies for health care professionals working with eHealth technologies.

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    Development of a Questionnaire and Cross-Sectional Survey of Patient eHealth Readiness and eHealth Inequalities

    Authors List:


    Background: Many speak of the digital divide, but variation in the opportunity of patients to use the Internet for health (patient eHealth readiness) is not a binary difference, rather a distribution influenced by personal capability, provision of services, support, and cost. Digital divisions in health have been addressed by various initiatives, but there was no comprehensive validated measure to know if they are effective that could be used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) covering both non-Internet-users and the range of Internet-users. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-completed questionnaire and scoring system to assess patient eHealth readiness by examining the spread of scores and eHealth inequalities. The intended use of this questionnaire and scores is in RCTs of interventions aiming to improve patient eHealth readiness and reduce eHealth inequalities. Methods: Based on four factors identified from the literature, a self-completed questionnaire, using a pragmatic combination of factual and attitude questions, was drafted and piloted in three stages. This was followed by a final population-based, cross-sectional household survey of 344 people used to refine the scoring system. Results: The Patient eHealth Readiness Questionnaire (PERQ) includes questions used to calculate four subscores: patients’ perception of (1) provision, (2) their personal ability and confidence, (3) their interpersonal support, and (4) relative costs in using the Internet for health. These were combined into an overall PERQ score (0-9) which could be used in intervention studies. Reduction in standard deviation of the scores represents reduction in eHealth inequalities. Conclusions: PERQ appears acceptable for participants in British studies. The scores produced appear valid and will enable assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to improve patient eHealth readiness and reduce eHealth inequalities. Such methods need continued evolution and redevelopment for other environments. Full documentation and data have been published to allow others to develop the tool further.

  • Interfaces of the online version of eASI: rating, summary, and diagnosis.

    Validity and Reliability of the eHealth Analysis and Steering Instrument


    Background: eHealth services can contribute to individuals’ self-management, that is, performing lifestyle-related activities and decision making, to maintain a good health, or to mitigate the effect of an (chronic) illness on their health. But how effective are these services? Conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the golden standard to answer such a question, but takes extensive time and effort. The eHealth Analysis and Steering Instrument (eASI) offers a quick, but not dirty alternative. The eASI surveys how eHealth services score on 3 dimensions (ie, utility, usability, and content) and 12 underlying categories (ie, insight in health condition, self-management decision making, performance of self-management, involving the social environment, interaction, personalization, persuasion, description of health issue, factors of influence, goal of eHealth service, implementation, and evidence). However, there are no data on its validity and reliability. Objective: The objective of our study was to assess the construct and predictive validity and interrater reliability of the eASI. Methods: We found 16 eHealth services supporting self-management published in the literature, whose effectiveness was evaluated in an RCT and the service itself was available for rating. Participants (N=16) rated these services with the eASI. We analyzed the correlation of eASI items with the underlying three dimensions (construct validity), the correlation between the eASI score and the eHealth services’ effect size observed in the RCT (predictive validity), and the interrater agreement. Results: Three items did not fit with the other items and dimensions and were removed from the eASI; 4 items were replaced from the utility to the content dimension. The interrater reliabilities of the dimensions and the total score were moderate (total, κ=.53, and content, κ=.55) and substantial (utility, κ=.69, and usability, κ=.63). The adjusted eASI explained variance in the eHealth services’ effect sizes (R2=.31, P<.001), as did the dimensions utility (R2=.49, P<.001) and usability (R2=.18, P=.021). Usability explained variance in the effect size on health outcomes (R2=.13, P=.028). Conclusions: After removing 3 items and replacing 4 items to another dimension, the eASI (3 dimensions, 11 categories, and 32 items) has a good construct validity and predictive validity. The eASI scales are moderately to highly reliable. Accordingly, the eASI can predict how effective an eHealth service is in regard to supporting self-management. Due to a small pool of available eHealth services, it is advised to reevaluate the eASI in the future with more services.

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